Version: 4.1.0.13

Examples

This page includes some basic examples of creating and parsing MAEC content.

There are a couple things we do in these examples for purposes of demonstration that shouldn’t be done in production code:

  • When calling to_xml(), we use include_namespaces=False. This is to make the example output easier to read, but means the resulting output cannot be successfully parsed. The XML parser doesn’t know what namespaces to use if they aren’t included. In production code, you should explicitly set include_namespaces to True or omit it entirely (True is the default).
  • We use set_id_method(IDGenerator.METHOD_INT) to make IDs for Malware Subjects and Actions easier to read and cross-reference within the XML document. In production code, you should omit this statement, which causes random UUIDs to be created instead, or create explicit IDs yourself for Malware Subjects and Actions.

Creating Packages

The most commonly used MAEC output format is the MAEC Package, which can contain one or more Malware Subjects. Malware Subjects (discussed in more detail below) encompass all of the data for a single malware instance, including that from different types of analysis.

from mixbox.idgen import IDGenerator, set_id_method
set_id_method(IDGenerator.METHOD_INT)

from maec.package import Package, MalwareSubject

p = Package()
ms = MalwareSubject()
p.add_malware_subject(ms)

print(p.to_xml(include_namespaces=False, encoding=None))

Which outputs:

<maecPackage:MAEC_Package id="example:package-1" schema_version="2.1">
    <maecPackage:Malware_Subjects>
        <maecPackage:Malware_Subject id="example:malware_subject-2">
        </maecPackage:Malware_Subject>
    </maecPackage:Malware_Subjects>
</maecPackage:MAEC_Package>

Creating Malware Subjects

The easiest way to create a Malware Subject is to construct one and then set various properties on it. The Malware_Instance_Object_Attributes field on a Malware Subject MUST be set in order to identify the particular malware instance that it is characterizing.

from mixbox.idgen import IDGenerator, set_id_method
set_id_method(IDGenerator.METHOD_INT)

from cybox.core import Object
from cybox.objects.file_object import File
from maec.package import MalwareSubject

ms = MalwareSubject()
ms.malware_instance_object_attributes = Object()
ms.malware_instance_object_attributes.properties = File()
ms.malware_instance_object_attributes.properties.file_name = "malware.exe"
ms.malware_instance_object_attributes.properties.file_path = "C:\Windows\Temp\malware.exe"
print(ms.to_xml(include_namespaces=False, encoding=None))

Which outputs:

<maecPackage:MalwareSubjectType id="example:malware_subject-1">
    <maecPackage:Malware_Instance_Object_Attributes id="example:Object-2">
        <cybox:Properties xsi:type="FileObj:FileObjectType">
            <FileObj:File_Name>malware.exe</FileObj:File_Name>
            <FileObj:File_Path>C:\Windows\Temp\malware.exe</FileObj:File_Path>
        </cybox:Properties>
    </maecPackage:Malware_Instance_Object_Attributes>
</maecPackage:MalwareSubjectType>

Creating Bundles

In MAEC, the Bundle represents a container for capturing the results from a particular malware analysis that was performed on a malware instance. While a Bundle is most commonly included as part of a Malware Subject, it can also be used a standalone output format when only malware analysis results for a malware instance wish to be shared. We’ll cover both cases here.

Creating Standalone Bundles

Standalone Bundles function very similarly to Malware Subjects. Therefore, the easiest way to create a standalone Bundle is to construct one and then set various properties on it. The Malware_Instance_Object_Attributes field on a standalone Bundle MUST be set in order to identify the particular malware instance that it is characterizing.

from mixbox.idgen import IDGenerator, set_id_method
set_id_method(IDGenerator.METHOD_INT)

from cybox.core import Object
from cybox.objects.file_object import File
from maec.bundle import Bundle

b = Bundle()
b.malware_instance_object_attributes = Object()
b.malware_instance_object_attributes.properties = File()
b.malware_instance_object_attributes.properties.file_name = "malware.exe"
b.malware_instance_object_attributes.properties.file_path = "C:\Windows\Temp\malware.exe"

print(b.to_xml(include_namespaces=False, encoding=None))

Which outputs:

<maecBundle:MAEC_Bundle defined_subject="false" id="example:bundle-1" schema_version="4.1">
    <maecBundle:Malware_Instance_Object_Attributes id="example:Object-2">
        <cybox:Properties xsi:type="FileObj:FileObjectType">
            <FileObj:File_Name>malware.exe</FileObj:File_Name>
            <FileObj:File_Path>C:\Windows\Temp\malware.exe</FileObj:File_Path>
        </cybox:Properties>
    </maecBundle:Malware_Instance_Object_Attributes>
</maecBundle:MAEC_Bundle>

Creating and adding Bundles to a Malware Subject

Bundles in a Malware Subject are defined nearly identically to those of the standalone variety, with the sole exception that they do not require their Malware_Instance_Object_Attributes field to be set, since this would already be defined in their parent Malware Subject.

from mixbox.idgen import IDGenerator, set_id_method
set_id_method(IDGenerator.METHOD_INT)

from cybox.core import Object
from cybox.objects.file_object import File

from maec.package import MalwareSubject
from maec.bundle import Bundle

ms = MalwareSubject()
ms.malware_instance_object_attributes = Object()
ms.malware_instance_object_attributes.properties = File()
ms.malware_instance_object_attributes.properties.file_name = "malware.exe"
ms.malware_instance_object_attributes.properties.file_path = "C:\Windows\Temp\malware.exe"

b = Bundle()
ms.add_findings_bundle(b)

print(ms.to_xml(include_namespaces=False, encoding=None))

Which outputs:

<maecPackage:MalwareSubjectType id="example:malware_subject-1">
    <maecPackage:Malware_Instance_Object_Attributes id="example:Object-2">
        <cybox:Properties xsi:type="FileObj:FileObjectType">
            <FileObj:File_Name>malware.exe</FileObj:File_Name>
            <FileObj:File_Path>C:\Windows\Temp\malware.exe</FileObj:File_Path>
        </cybox:Properties>
    </maecPackage:Malware_Instance_Object_Attributes>
    <maecPackage:Findings_Bundles>
        <maecPackage:Bundle defined_subject="false" id="example:bundle-3" schema_version="4.1"/>
    </maecPackage:Findings_Bundles>
</maecPackage:MalwareSubjectType>

Creating and adding Actions to a Bundle

MAEC uses its MalwareAction to capture the low-level dynamic entities, such as API calls or their abstractions, performed by malware. A MalwareAction is stored in a Bundle (either standalone or embedded in a Malware Subject, as discussed above). As with the other MAEC entities, the easiest way to use the MalwareAction is to instantiate it and then set various properties on it as needed.

from mixbox.idgen import IDGenerator, set_id_method
set_id_method(IDGenerator.METHOD_INT)

from cybox.core import Object, AssociatedObjects, AssociatedObject
from cybox.objects.file_object import File
from cybox.common import VocabString
from maec.bundle import Bundle
from maec.bundle import MalwareAction

b = Bundle()
a = MalwareAction()
ao = AssociatedObject()

ao.properties = File()
ao.properties.file_name = "badware.exe"
ao.properties.size_in_bytes = "123456"
ao.association_type = VocabString()
ao.association_type.value = 'output'
ao.association_type.xsi_type = 'maecVocabs:ActionObjectAssociationTypeVocab-1.0'

a.name = VocabString()
a.name.value = 'create file'
a.name.xsi_type = 'maecVocabs:FileActionNameVocab-1.0'
a.associated_objects = AssociatedObjects()
a.associated_objects.append(ao)

b.add_action(a)

print(b.to_xml(include_namespaces = False, encoding=None))
<maecBundle:MAEC_Bundle defined_subject="false" id="example:bundle-1" schema_version="4.1">
    <maecBundle:Actions>
        <maecBundle:Action id="example:action-2">
            <cybox:Name xsi:type="maecVocabs:FileActionNameVocab-1.0">create file</cybox:Name>
            <cybox:Associated_Objects>
                <cybox:Associated_Object id="example:Object-3">
                    <cybox:Properties xsi:type="FileObj:FileObjectType">
                        <FileObj:File_Name>badware.exe</FileObj:File_Name>
                        <FileObj:Size_In_Bytes>123456</FileObj:Size_In_Bytes>
                    </cybox:Properties>
                    <cybox:Association_Type xsi:type="maecVocabs:ActionObjectAssociationTypeVocab-1.0">output</cybox:Association_Type>
                </cybox:Associated_Object>
            </cybox:Associated_Objects>
        </maecBundle:Action>
    </maecBundle:Actions>
</maecBundle:MAEC_Bundle>